Ülo Ennuste Economics

papers and articles in wordpress

NB 7.VII 18

Väärt asjatundlik ajakirjanduslik lugemine* Mackron’likust transitsioonist

Tõepoolest ajakirjanduslik kuid muidugi mitte teaduspõhine sotsiaalküberneetilisest ning institutsionaalteoreetiliset rakursist nagu nt**

 *) Revolution Française: Emmanuel Macron and the quest to reinvent a nation 

by Sophie Pedder (Author)

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 ja The GuardianAbout Revolution Française

He emerged from nowhere to seize the presidency, defeat populism and upend French party politics. Who is Emmanuel Macron? Ho
w far can he really change France?

In Revolution Française, Sophie Pedder examines the first year in office of France’s youngest and most exciting president in modern times, with unique perspective from her time as head of The Economist‘s Paris bureau. President Emmanuel Macron’s vision for France is far more radical than many realise. His remarkable ascent from obscurity to the presidency is both a dramatic story of personal ambition and the tale of a wounded once-proud country in deep need of renewal. What shaped this enigmatic character, the precociously bright student and talented networker from northern France; the philosophy graduate and Rothschild banker who married his school drama teacher? How did a political outsider manage to defy the unwritten rules of the Fifth Republic and secure the presidency at his first attempt? And what are the underlying ideas behind his vision?This book chronicles Macron’s remarkable rise from independent outsider to the Élysée Palace, situating the achievement in a broader context: France’s slide into self-doubt, political gridlock and a seeming reluctance to embrace change; the roots of populism and discontent; the fractures caused by globalisation and the Le Pen factor. Looking back on the young president’s dramatic first year in power, with analysis of his key reforms and lofty ambitions, it asks how far it is possible for Macron to reinvent a conservative nation uneasy about embracing the future. Can the man nicknamed ‘Jupiter’ really return France to its former greatness, or will he, by the time his mandate expires, end up as just another side note in political history? Punctuated with first-hand conversations and reporting, this book takes on all of these questions, concluding with a fascinating and exclusive interview with Macron recorded in early 2018. Pedder’s riveting, and essential, book will be one of the most captivating political books of this year.

Reviews

“The seminal account of Macron’s rise, as riveting as a thriller.” –  Lauren Collins, staff writer at the New Yorker and author of When in French: Love in a Second Language“An important and brilliant book, sparkling with insights into the elusive and highly original personality of Emmanuel Macron, and the scale of his ambition to transform France and re-launch Europe.” –  Lord Peter Ricketts, former British Ambassador to France“An important book on Europe’s most influential leader and whether liberalism has a future.” –  Robert Peston, ITV Political Editor“[An] excellent and lavishly sourced account of Macron’s “quest to reinvent a nation” … an illuminating book about a highly unusual politician.” –  Financial Times“Quick-paced, witty and elegantly written … Pedder’s book is a breath of fresh air for the calmness and intelligence with which she deciphers and dissects the man and the politician.” –  The Times“Probably the foreign journalist who knows [Macron] best” –  Irish Times“[An] impressive combination of reportage and analysis, enriched with tête-à-têteinterviews … fluently written and well-plotted” –  The Economist“Having read Revolution Française I understand Macron much better now and the modernisation he is attempting in France.” –  Lord [Andrew] Adonis

“[An] excellent new biography” –  Charles Grant, Director, Centre for European Reform

“Sharp … written with concise elegance” –  Sunday Times

“An insightful examination of the rise, vision, and potential impact of France’s youngest president … authoritative” –  Kirkus Reviews

“A superb book … Sophie Pedder has a deep understanding of what drives France and the French” –  François Heisbourg, Chairman of the International Institute for Strategic Studies council, Special Adviser at the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique in Paris

“First rate … Revolution Francaise offers the best answer in English so far to two big questions: who is this man? And how will he change his country? … This is a model biography by a writer who knows and loves France” –  New Statesman

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**) Lee, Sanghoon (2018) “Social capital and health at the country level´´ –  The Social Science Journal 55:  37–51.

Keywords: Social capital Health Bonding social capital Bridging social capital

a b s t r a c t This study examines the relationship between social capital and health. We use various estimation methods such as pooled OLS, a split-sample approach, a quadratic regression, and fixed effects model to investigate country-level unbalanced panel data of 194 countries for the time period 1990–2015. The results support the negative effect of bonding social capital and the positive effect of bridging social capital on health. The effects are more pronounced in low income countries. The first contribution of the paper is to better explain the mixed results of previous studies by focusing on the distinction between the two types of social capital. The second contribution of the paper is to address endogeneity and nonlinearity problems and to capture dynamic change by using various econometric methods. The findings imply that the socio-economic effects of social capital

are.different depending on the type of social capital. © 2017 Western Social Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PS rahvusliku tervise üks komponent on rahvusliku teadmusstruktuuri kvaliteet mida Mackron eeskätt püüab transformeerida sotsiaalkapitali konsolideerimisega seda nii negatiivse populismi ja vasakparempoolse ning digitaalse rahvusliku lõhestamise elimineerimisega. Vt ka

https://books.telegraph.co.uk/Product/Sophie-Pedder/Revolution-Francaise–Emmanuel-Macron-and-the-quest-to-reinvent-a-nation/22472129

PSPS Pedder osundab et ilmselt Macron on sotsiaal teoreetiliselt valdavalt Nobelisti A K Sen jünger. Kolmest Prantsuse Majandusnobelistist on raamatus ainult esindatud Tirole. Kuna Pedder on Inglise majandusajakirjanik siis paratamatult tema tekstis on ilmselt Euroliidu lagunemise ning eurotsooni finantskriiside võimaluse käsitlused üledramatiseeritud vähemalt peavoolu makromajanduslikust rakursist. Muide Pedder väidab et Merkel ja Mackron omavahel suhtlevad inglise keeles ja et Makron oma suuremate ettekannete sisulise eeltoimetamise reeglina tellib Merkelilt.

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July 7, 2018 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

P.S.: 1.IV 18

Rahvuspoliitika aktuaalseid kaudseid tabuteemasid ja nende moodsaid sotsiaal-küberneetilisi käsitlusi

Python, Andre; Jürgen Brandsch, Aliya Tskhay (2017) „Provoking local ethnic violence – A global study on ethnic polarization and terrorist targeting“ – Political Geography, Volume 58, May 2017, Pages 77-89:

Appendix A. Supplementary data

Supplementary data related to this article can be found at http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2017.02.001.

 

Reference examples

….

Anselin, L. (1990). Spatial dependence and spatial structural instability in applied

regression analysis. Journal of Regional Science, 30(2), 185e207. http://doi.org/

10.1111/j.1467-9787.1990.tb00092.x.

….

Anselin, L., & Rey, S. (1991). Properties of tests for spatial dependence in linear

regression models. Geographical Analysis, 23(2), 112e131. http://doi.org/10.1111/

j.1538-4632.1991.tb00228.x.

Arva, B. J., & Piazza, J. A. (2016). Spatial distribution of minority communities and

terrorism: Domestic concentration versus transnational dispersion. Defence and

Peace Economics, 27(1), 1e36. http://doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2015.1055091.

Balcells, L., Daniels, L.-A., & Escrib_a-Folch, A. (2015). The determinants of lowintensity

intergroup violence the case of Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace

Research, 53(1), 33e48. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022343315610399.

….

Basuchoudhary, A., & Shughart, W. F. (2010). On ethnic conflict and the origins of

transnational terrorism. Defence and Peace Economics, 21(1), 65e87. http://doi.

org/10.1080/10242690902868343.

Beck, C. J., & Miner, E. (2013). Who gets designated a terrorist and why? Social

Forces, 91(3), 837e872. http://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sos200.

Blankenship, B. (2016). When do states take the Bait? State capacity and the

provocation logic of terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1e29. http://doi.

org/10.1177/0022002716645656.

UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity Series, 12. http://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44936.

Bohlken, A. T., & Sergenti, E. J. (2010). Economic growth and ethnic violence: An

empirical investigation of HindueMuslim riots in India. Journal of Peace

Research, 47(5), 589e600. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022343310373032.

Brubaker, R. (2002). Ethnicity without groups. European Journal of Sociology, 43(2),

163e189. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0003975602001066.

Bueno De Mesquita, E., & Dickson, E. S. (2007). The propaganda of the deed:

Terrorism, counterterrorism, and mobilization. American Journal of Political

Science, 51(2), 364e381. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00256.x.

Buhaug, H., Cederman, L. E., & Gleditsch, K. S. (2014). Square pegs in round holes:

Inequalities, grievances, and civil war. International Studies Quarterly, 58(2),

418e431. http://doi.org/10.1111/isqu.12068.

 

P.S.P.S.: Sotsiaal-küberneetilises käsitluses saaksime ülalkirjeldatu eeskujul defineerida ka riigisiseseid küber-terrorismi strateegiad ning analüüsida nende seoseid nii riigisiseseste etniliste struktuuride killustatuse kui ka polariseerituse määradega ning riikidevaheliste suhete hinnangutega. Seejuures eristades nii ainelisi kui ka ainetuid küber-rünnakuid – viimaseid eeskätt trollide poolt.

April 1, 2018 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Memo 20.I 18

Persson, Thorsten; Guido Tabellini (2009) „Democratic capital: The nexus of political and economic change“-

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316220650_Democratic_capital_The_nexus_of_political_and_economic_change

All content following this page was uploaded by Guido Tabellini on 16 February 2018..

.

Abstract: We study the dynamics of economic and political change, theoretically and empirically.

Democratic capital measured by a nation’s historical experience with

democracy and the incidence of democracy in its neighborhood appears to reduce

exit rates from democracy and raise exit rates from autocracy. Higher democratic

capital stimulates growth by increasing the stability of democracies.

Heterogeneous effects of democracy induce sorting of countries into political

regimes, which helps explain systematic differences between democracies and

autocracies. Our results suggest the possibility of a virtuous circle, where accumulation

of physical and democratic capital reinforce each other, promoting

economic development and consolidation of democracy.

JEL: D70, H11, N10, O11

Keywords: political regimes, hazard rates, economic growth

March 4, 2018 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Note: Animal Spirits

George A. Akerlof,‎ Robert J. J. Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism. Princeton University Press. Kindle Edition: 254.

The global financial crisis has made it painfully clear that powerful psychological forces are imperiling the wealth of nations today. From blind faith in ever-rising housing prices to plummeting confidence in capital markets, “animal spirits” are driving financial events worldwide. In this book, acclaimed economists George Akerlof and Robert Shiller challenge the economic wisdom that got us into this mess, and put forward a bold new vision that will transform economics and restore prosperity.

Akerlof and Shiller reassert the necessity of an active government role in economic policymaking by recovering the idea of animal spirits, a term John Maynard Keynes used to describe the gloom and despondence that led to the Great Depression and the changing psychology that accompanied recovery. Like Keynes, Akerlof and Shiller know that managing these animal spirits requires the steady hand of government–simply allowing markets to work won’t do it. In rebuilding the case for a more robust, behaviorally informed Keynesianism, they detail the most pervasive effects of animal spirits in contemporary economic life–such as confidence, fear, bad faith, corruption, a concern for fairness, and the stories we tell ourselves about our economic fortunes–and show how Reaganomics, Thatcherism, and the rational expectations revolution failed to account for them.

Animal Spirits offers a road map for reversing the financial misfortunes besetting us today. Read it and learn how leaders can channel animal spirits–the powerful forces of human psychology that are afoot in the world economy today. In a new preface, they describe why our economic troubles may linger for some time–unless we are prepared to take further, decisive action.

 

March 1, 2018 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Memento “4.I 18”

Matsushima, Hitoshi (esmasavaldus võrgus 4.I 2018*) „Efficient Combinatorial Allocations: Individual Rationality versus Stability“ – DE GRUYTER The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics. 2017; 20170072 (trükis ilmub ilmselt 2018 esimeses kv):

*) https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bejte.ahead-of-print/bejte-2017-0072/bejte-2017-0072.xml

Abstract:

We investigate combinatorial allocations with opt-out types and clarify the possibility of achieving efficiency under incomplete information. We introduce two distinct collective decision procedures. The first procedure assumes that the central planner designs a mechanism and players have the option to exit. The mechanism requires interim individual rationality. The second procedure assumes that players design a mechanism by

committing themselves to participate. The mechanism requires marginal stability against blocking behavior by the largest proper coalitions. We show that the central planner can earn non-negative revenue in the first procedure, if and only if he cannot do so in the second.

Keywords: efficient combinatorial allocations, bayesian incentive compatibility, opt-out types, interim individual rationality, marginal stability

JEL classification: D44, D61, D82

DOI: 10.1515/bejte-2017-0072

P.S.: afinne rakendusnäide

Ennuste,Ü. (2014) “Towards Special Methodological Problems of Macro-Optimal Sociocybernetic International Economic Sanctioning Coordination Modelling: Introductory Remarks oPreliminary Postulates and Conjectures” – Baltic Journal of European Studies Tallinn University of Technology (ISSN 2228-0588), Vol. 4, No. 2 (17), 150-158:

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bjes.2014.4.issue-2/bjes-2014-0021/bjes-2014-0021.xml?format=INT

January 28, 2018 Posted by | 150-158: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bjes.2014.4.issue-2/bjes-2014-0021/bjes-2014-0021.xml?format=INT, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Memo 20.I 18

Weiss, Martin; Claudio Cattaneo (2017) „Stock and Reviewing an Emerging Academic Paradigm“ –  Ecological Economics 137  220–230:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.01.014

http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon

Abstract

Degrowth has evolved within a decade from an activist movement into a multi-disciplinary academic paradigm. However, an overview taking stock of the peer-refereed degrowth literature is yet missing. Here, we review 91 articles that were published between 2006 and 2015. We find that the academic degrowth discourse occupies a small but expanding niche at the intersection of social and applied environmental sciences. The discourse is shaped by authors from high-income, mainly Mediterranean, countries. Until 2012, articles largely constitute conceptual essays endorsed by normative claims. More recently, degrowth has branched out into modelling, empirical assessments, and the study of concrete implementations. Authors tend to agree in that economic growth cannot be sustained

ad infinitum on a resource constraint planet and that degrowth requires far reaching societal change. Whether degrowth should be considered as a collectively consented choice or an environmentally-imposed inevitability constitutes amajor debate among degrowth thinkers.We argue that the academic discourse could benefit fromrigid hypotheses testing through input-outputmodelling, material flow analysis, life-cycle assessments, or social surveys. By analyzing the potentials for non-market value creation and identifying concrete well-being benefits, the degrowth discourse could receive wider public support and contribute to a paradigmatic change in the social sciences.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Summary of Discussion Papers uploaded to our website week ending 25/02/2018 (for details see below).

This email lists all the CEPR Discussion Papers uploaded to http://www.cepr.org in the last week. Clicking on the Discussion Paper number in the list below will take you to the abstract page for that paper and clicking on the PDF link will take you directly to the paper itself if you are a Corporate Member of CEPR, a CEPR Research Fellow or Affiliate or a subscriber to CEPR Discussion Papers.

Journalists are entitled to free access on request; if you have not yet registered, please contact pressoffice@cepr.org.

DP12754 Early Gender Gaps Among University Graduates

Author(s): Marco Francesconi, Matthias Parey

Date of Publication: February 2018

Programme Area(s): LE

Keyword(s): gender wage gap, Field of study, University graduates, Germany

Abstract: We use data from six cohorts of university graduates in Germany to assess the extent of gender gaps in college and labor market performance twelve to eighteen months after graduation. Men and women enter college in roughly equal numbers, but more women than men complete their degrees. Women enter college with slightly better high school grades, but women leave university with slightly lower marks. Immediately following university completion, male and female full-timers work very similar number of hours per week, but men earn more than women across the pay distribution, with an unadjusted gender gap in full-time monthly earnings of about 20 log points on average. Including a large set of controls reduces the gap to 5-10 log points. The single most important proximate factor that explains the gap is field of study at university.

DP12753 Ramsey Taxation in the Global Economy

Author(s): V. V. Chari, Juan Pablo Nicolini, Pedro Teles

Date of Publication: February 2018

Programme Area(s): IMF

Keyword(s): Capital income tax; free trade; value-added taxes; border adjustment; origin- and destination-based taxation; production e

Abstract: We study cooperative optimal Ramsey equilibria in the open economy addressing classic policy questions: Should restrictions be placed to free trade and capital mobility? Should capital income be taxed? Should goods be taxed based on origin or destination? What are desirable border adjustments? How can a Ramsey allocation be implemented with residence-based taxes on assets? We characterize optimal wedges and analyze alternative policy implementations.

January 20, 2018 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Viimatise kümnendi olulisemaid üllitisi

Ennuste, Ü. 2017 nov. Päringukiri: https://yloennuste.wordpress.com/2017/11/21/nb-rahvastikupoliitika-katastroofi-tooruhm-riigikogus/

Ennuste, Ü. 2016 nov. Do not quote: https://uloennuste.wordpress.com/2016/11/

Ennuste,Ü. 2014. Towards Special Methodological Problems of Macro-Optimal Sociocybernetic International Economic Sanctioning Coordination Modelling: Introductory Remarks oPreliminary Postulates and Conjectures. – Baltic Journal of European Studies Tallinn University of Technology (ISSN 2228-0588) ETISE 1.1 kategooria ajakiri.  Vol. 4, No. 2 (17), 150-158:

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bjes.2014.4.issue-2/bjes-2014-0021/bjes-2014-0021.xml?format=INT

Ülo Ennuste (kaastoimetaja) 2014: http://digar.nlib.ee/digar/show/?id=134869

Varju, Peep. 2013. Eesti laste küüditamine Venemaale 14. juunil 1941 kui genotsiidi- jasõjakuritegu. Ülo Ennuste kaastoimetaja. Sihtasutus Valge Raamat, Talinna Raamatutrükikoda, 116 lk, Tallinn 2013:

http://www.digar.ee/arhiiv/nlib-digar:134869

Ennuste, Ü. 2012.  “Waiting for the Commission Strengthened Governance Coordination Leviathans: Discourse Memo for the Actors in the Macro-Game “European Semester”- Baltic Journal of European Studies“ Vol 2, No 1, 2012 p 139-164:

http://www.ies.ee/iesp/No11/articles/08_Ulo_Ennuste.pdf

Ülo Ennuste (kaastoimetaja) 2012. Kannatuste aastad 1940-1991 2. vihik. Tallinn: Valge Raamat.

Ennuste (2012) Viide kui “Valgele raamatu” 2005 kaastoimetajale: http://www.communistcrimes.org/en/Database/Estonia/Estonia-Communist-Era

Ennuste, Ü. 2010. Selected Estonian key heterodox macro-economic retrospective/prospective indicators (Sept 2010) :

https://uloennuste.wordpress.com/2010/09/15/selected-estonian-key-heterodox-macro-economic-retrospectiveprospective-indicators-sept-2010/

Ennuste, Ü. 2009 October. Interview to Telegraph.co.uk to A. Evans-Prichard: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/ambroseevans_pritchard/6211872/Debt-deflation-laboratory-of-the-Baltics.html

Ennuste, Ü. 2009. Estonian hyper-crisis lessons confirm importance of more effective high quality coordination/regulation and harmonisation: Mechanism design theoretic approach. In: Aksel Kirch and András Inotai (Eds.) EUROPEAN UNION: CURRENT POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES. Institute for European Studies Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, 11-35: http://www.ies.ee/iesp/No6/iesp_no6.pdf

Ennuste, Ü. 2009. Towards Synthetic Design of Implementing Socio-Economic Communication Mechanisms for Building Optimal Public Socio-Economic Knowledge Spaces. – EAEPE Conference in Amasterdam (available online at the EAEPE Conference homepage).

Ennuste, Ü. 2009. Majanduspoliitika kvaliteedi kompleksprognoosi analüüsi näide: https://uloennuste.wordpress.com/2009/02/05/majanduspoliitika-kvaliteedi-kompleksprognoosi-analuusi-naide-visand-4-ii-09/

Ennuste, Ü. 2009. Memo to The Prime Minister of Estonia and The Commissiomer of Economic and Monetary Affairs:

https://uloennuste.wordpress.com/2009/09/23/memo-23-ix-09/

Ennuste, Ü. 2008. Synthetic Conceptions of Implementing Mechanisms Design for Public Socio-Economic Information Structure: Illustrative Estonian Examples. Kirch, Aksel; Kerikmäe, Tanel; Talts, Mait (Eds.) Socio-economic and institutional environment: harmonisation in the EU countries of Baltic Sea Rim: a collection of research articles dedicated to the 10th Anniversary of the Institute for European Studies, Tallinn: Tallinn University of Technology, 9 – 39: http://www.ies.ee/iesp/No4/Ennuste.pdf

Ennuste,Ü. 2008. TEA entsüklopeedia 1. köide, majandusteaduslike artiklite ning ca 2000 märksõna koostaja.

Ennuste, Ü. (kaastoimetaja) 2008. Kannatuste aastad 1940-1991 1. vihik. Tallinn: Valge Raamat.

Ennuste. Ü. 2007. Dual Market-Transition in Estonia 1987-2006: Institutional Mechanism Analysis Approach. In: “EUROPE AFTER HISTORICAL ENLARGEMENT”. The Proceedings of 5th Audentes Spring Conference, Apr. 28 2007, Tallinn, 60-126: http://www.ies.ee/iesp/No3/

Ennuste, Ü. 2007 September. The Speech: http://www.audentes.eu/public/Ennuste_Speech.pdf

Ennuste, Ü. 2006. Meta-synthesis Approach to Economic System Implementation Mechanisms. In: Simulation and Optimisation in Business and Industry : International Conference on Operational Research, May 17-20, 2006, Tallinn, Estonia / Eds. H. Pranevicius [et al.]. Kaunas : Technologija, 2006, 9-12. http://helios.nlib.ee/search*est/i?SEARCH=9955250615.

Ennuste, Ü. 2006. Meta-Synthesis Approach to Economic System Implementation Mechanisms. SOBI2006 Abstract. Produtseerija: TTÜ:

http://staff.ttu.ee/~math/SOBI2006/abstract.Ennuste.p

December 20, 2017 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

NB: TLÜ AR e-platvorm

 

NB! – http://etera.ee  

ETERA

TLÜ AR e-platvorm (vt täpsemalt – https://arvamus.postimees.ee/4343291/andres-kollist-oiglane-infouhiskond-teadus-ja-eestlus?utm_source ) milles ka nt ETA Toimetised paari klikiga kättesaadavad: näiteks lõik Jaan Tepandi’ teadusloogilisest artiklist:

Яан ТЕПАНДИ (1989) „ОБ ОБЩЕЙ СТРУКТУРЕ МЕХАНИЗМА УПРАВЛЕНИЯ

Экономикой“ – EESTI NSV TEADUSTE AKADEEMIA TOIMETISED. Ühiskonnateadused*. Köide 38 Nr 1: 1-15.

 

„ … Приведем высказывания по этому вопросу некоторых советских уче-

ных-экономистов, исследовавших проблемы механизма хозяйствования.

Л. И. Абалкин еще в 1973 г. писал, что «…хозяйственный механизм

представляет собой слож н у ю разветвленную систему пла-

нового управления социалистической экономикой с присущими ей фор-

мами и методами хозяйствования, экономическими рычагами и спосо-

бами воздействия на производство» [l]. Он подчеркивает принцип комп-

лексности этого механизма; «. ..эффективность каждого элемента хозяй-

ственного механизма возрастает при его включении в систему мер, и,

наоборот, резко уменьшается в случае некомплексного применения» [l].

Спустя 8 лет Л. И. Абалкин вынужден констатировать: «…в даль-

нейшем (разрядка моя. Я. Т.) и это одна из актуальных задач

экономической теории потребуется создать единую, целостную концеп-

цию хозяйственного механизма, охватывающую его структуру по различ-

ным уровням и аспектам. Для решения этой задачи потребуется целый

этап накопления знаний, обобщения опыта и сопоставления возможных

альтернатив. Сегодня для окончательного решения этой проблемы еще

не созрели соответствующие предпосылки, не создан необходимый науч-

ный задел» [2],

П. Г. Бунич, предлагая «основную модель хозяйственного механизма

управления», дающую в схематической форме обзор комплекса элемен-

тов этого механизма, вынужден также отметить, что «эта проблема отно-

сится к числу слабо исследованных экономической наукой» и что, по-

этому, его задача «состоит не столько в характеристике законченных

моделей, сколько в изложении исходных принципов их построения» [3].

И, наконец, В. И. Павлюченко писал: «К настоящему времени выпол- нено немало работ по проблемам хозяйственного механизма, однако в

большинстве из них рассматриваются его отдельные звенья и при этом отсутствует комплексный анализ данного механизма как единой целост-

ной системы взаимодействующих элементов. …“

 

*)

EESTI NSV TEADUSTE AKADEEMIA TOIMETISED. ÜHISKONNATEADUSED

ИЗВЕСТИЯ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК ЭСТОНСКОЙ ССР. ОБЩЕСТВЕННЫЕ НАУКИ

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE ESTONIAN SSR. SOCIAL SCIENCES

1989, 38, 1.

 

SISUKORD

Jaan Tepandi. Sotsialistliku majanduse juhtimise mehhanismi üldstruktuurist.

Resümee 15

Urmas Sepp. Tootmise intensiivsuse hindamine ettevõtteväliste tegurite elimineerimisel.

Resümee 29

Ülo Ennuste. Alternatiivsete stohhastiliste planeerimismehhanismide mõningaid

probleeme. Resümee 41 (vt LISA A)

Borjss Mironov. Kirjaoskuse dünaamika Baltimaadel 18. sajandi teisel poolel ja

  1. sajandil; ajaloolise rekonstrueerimise katse. Resümee 50

Maria Tilk. Käsitööliste õpipoiste olukorrast Eestis 19. sajandi teisel poolel. Resümee 65

Toomas Püvi. Talude päriseksostmisest Eestimaa kubermangus 19. sajandi lõpul 67

Kadi Riismaa. Loodusvarade Instituudi loomine ja tegevus 80

Tiina Aili. Eesti Vabariigi haritlaskonna uurimise probleeme 89

KRIITIKAT JA BIBLIOGRAAFIAT

Teet Veispak. Kolmkümmend protsenti surmast 100

 

TOIMETUSKOLLEEGIUM: ENSV TA akadeemikud J. Kahk (esimees) ja J. Rebane, ENSV TA korrespondentliige H. Rätsep, ajaloodoktorid E. Kaup ja R. Pullat, majandusdoktorid Ü. Ennuste (aseesimees) ja R. Оtsason, majanduskandidaat M. Pavels о n, filoloogia- M. Reшmel.

Toimetuse aadress; 200105 Tallinn, Estonia pst. 7. Tel. 605-792

LISA A

LÕPULÕIK Ennuste ’89 ingl artiklist + viited + e.k ja v.k kokkuvõtted lk39-41 :
” … 6. Final remarks
The purpose of this paper was to clarify alternative planning mechanisms
of abstract economies under uncertainty. The paper examines them
mainly in the context of two optimal future price-limit coordination
mechanisms. In the case of the first mechanism the basic assumption is
that there exists a complete set of current (pre-event) state-dependent
future goods markets. The second version says that the agents have
current correct expectations about the optimal future (post-event) statedependent
prices and quantities. In the context of the initial model used
in this paper the elaboration of optimal price and quantity plans in both
mechanisms is achieved.
Also, issues of risk allocation in the mechanisms are clarified from two
aspects. First, the possibilities of diminishing unimplied managerial risks
are demonstrated. Second, the rate of risk aversion implied by the incentive
mechanism and an interval plan is studied, and, as a result, the
following assertion is made: the use of an interval plan instead plan will lessen the of a point risk aversion induced by the incentive mechanism and
stimulate the agents to choose riskier alternatives.
However, the mechanisms studied are based on highly oversimplified assumptions. So the problem remains to be studied on more realistic assumptions and not oversimplified models. Significant open problems include the implementation of a correct expectation equilibrium (informa- tion acquisition), imperfectly competitive markets with expectations, bid- ding for long-term contracts with relationship-specific investments under uncertainty, etc.

REFERENCES
1. Ennuste, Ü On stochastic equilibrium of centrally coordinated optimum plans. Proc. Acad. Sei. ESSR. Social Sciences, 1985, 34, N 3, 237 245 2. Green, J. Temporary general equilibrium in a sequential trading model with spot and future transactions, Econometrica, 1973, 41, 1103—1123
0 if — k= — oo
N{—k) =l >0 if oo<—/г<o
1/2 if k= 0.
3. Grandmont, J. Temporary general equilibrium theory. In; Handbook of Mathematical
Economics, 11. Amsterdam, 1982, 879—922.
4. Benassy, J. On competitive market mechanisms. Econometrica, 1986, 54, N 1,
95—108.
5. Makowski, L., Ostroy, J. Vickrey-Clarke-Groves mechanisms and perfect competition.
J. Economic Theory, 1987, 42, N 2, 244—261.
6. Hurwicz, L. Incentives aspects of decentralization. In: Handbook of Mathematical
Economics, 111. Amsterdam, 1986, 1441—1482.
7. Williams, S. Realization and Nash implementation: two aspects of mechanism
design. Econometrica, 1986, 54, N 1, 139—151.
8. Cohen, S. Incentives, iterative communication, and organizational control. J. Economic
Theory, 1980, 22, N 1, 37—55.
9. Marschak, T. Organization design. In; Handbook of Mathematical Economics, 111.
Amsterdam, 1986, 1359—1440. 10. Rees, R. Some problems in optimal pricing under uncertainty. J. Economics, 1982,
Suppi. 2, 63—78.
11. Bennett, J. Alternative price and quantity controls for regulation under uncertainty.—
J. Economics, 1984, 44, N 2, 103—115.
12. Saari, D. The representation problem and the efficiency of the price mechanisms.
J. Mathematical Economics, 1985, 14, N 2, 135—167.
13. Diamond, P. The role of a stock market in a general equilibrium model with technological
uncertainty. American Economic Review, 1967, 57, N 3, 759—776.
14. Dreze, J. Uncertainty and the firm in general equilibrium theory. Supplement to
the Economic Journal, 1985, 95, I—2o.1 —20.
15. Radner, R. Equilibrium under uncertainty. In: Handbook of Mathematical Economics,
11. Amsterdam, 1982, 923—1006.
16. Wright, R. Market structure and competitive equilibrium in dynamic models.
J. Economic Theory, 1987, 41, N 1, 189—201.
17. Allen, B. General equilibrium with rational expectations. In: Contributions to
Mathematical Economics. In Honor of Gerard Debreu. Amsterdam, 1986, 1—23.
18. Itami, H. Analysis of implied risk-taking behavior under a goal-based incentive
scheme. Manag. Sei., 1976, 23, N 2, 183—197.
19. Hart, О. Optimal labor contracts under asymmetric information: an introduction.
Rev. Econ. Studies, 1983, 50, N 1, 3—35.
20. Samuelson, W. Bidding for contracts. Manag. Sei., 1986, 32, N 12, 1533—1550.
Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR, Received
Institute of Economics Dec. 16, 19£7

ALTERNATIIVSETE STOHHASTILISTE PLANEERIMISMEHHANISMIDE
MÕNINGAID PROBLEEME
Artiklis on selgitatud alternatiivsete stohhastiliste planeerimismehhanismide lähteeeldusi
ja hinnanguid. Mehhanismid on koostatud abstraktsele optimeerimismajandusele,
mis koosneb kahest tegevussfäärist ja hõlmab kahte perioodi.
Alternatiivsed planeerimismehhanismid rakendavad kombineeritud koordineerimist
(hinnad ja limiidid), kuid põhitähelepanu on pööratud stohhastiliste plaaniliste hindade
mehhanismile. Samuti on vaadeldud nende mehhanismidega seotud planeerijate täiendavat
riskikartust ja võimalusi selle leevendamiseks.
Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia
Majanduse Instituut
Toimetusse saabunud 16. XII 1987

НЕКОТОРЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНЫХ
СТОХАСТИЧЕСКИХ МЕХАНИЗМОВ ПЛАНИРОВАНИЯ
В статье проанализированы основные предпосылки и оценки некоторых альтерна-
тивных стохастических механизмов планирования для абстрактной оптимизационной
экономики, охватывающей два периода и две сферы деятельности. Альтернативные
механизмы планирования применяют комбинированную координацию (цены и лимиты). Здесь же основное внимание уделено механизму плановых цен в условиях стохастики. Обсуждаются также неизбежные при таком механизме планирования проблемы риска и возможности снятия боязни риска среди плановиков.
Институт экономики Поступила в редакцию
Академии наук Эстонской ССР 16/XII 1987

LISA B – Eelöeldutega seonduvaid sotsiaal-küberneetilisi lisaprobleeme moodsas post-koloniaalses/tsensuurses ja IT-ajastule omases  kontekstis

Ajakirja Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica värske number on pühendatud Eesti NSV kultuuri ja Moskva keskvõimu suhete uurimisele postkolonialismi vaatepunktist


13.12.2017       Mari Sarv

Erinumbris käsitletakse uudse nurga alt Nõukogude Eesti kultuurielu suhteid Moskva kui ideoloogilise keskuse ettekirjutustega. Metoodiliseks raamistikuks on postkolonialismi uuringud: sotskolonialism on kolonialismi vorm, kus koloniaalsed strateegiad on lahutamatud kommunistliku ühiskonna ülesehitamise püüdest. Erinumbri fookuses on koloniaaldiskursuste ja kohalike kultuuriliste kujutelmade omavaheline suhestumine, nende suhete järkjärguline muutumine ning uute kultuuripraktikate väljakujunemine ja varasemate, traditsiooniliste kultuuripraktikate teisenemine koloniaalse võimumaatriksi survel. Sissejuhatavas artiklis analüüsib erinumbri koostaja Epp Annus, kuidas toimus sotskolonialismi diskursuste kehtestamine Eestis. Artiklites tutvustatakse mitmetasandilisi mehhanisme, mille abil sõjajärgset ühiskonda ideeliselt suunati. Stalinismiperioodi muutusi ilukirjanduses uurib Eve Annuk, džässmuusikas Heli Reimann, eesti folkloristikas Liina Saarlo. Arhiivileiu rubriigis tutvustab Tõnu Tannberg ÜK(b)P Keskkomitee kinnist kirja kui keskvõimu efektiivset kontrollmehhanismi, Margus Vihalemm vaatleb ka nõukogude Eesti ühismajandi argisensooriumi kui spetsiifilist tajumaailma. Hilisnõukogude perioodi kirjandust ja kunsti käsitlevad artiklid Kädi Talvojalt, Johanna Rossilt avavad Eesti NSV moderniseerumisprotsesside seoseid NSVL keskuses toimuvate arengutega.Number on ilmunud ajakirja kodulehel http://www.methis.ee/arhiiv/methis-nr-20-sugis-2017

Alates 2017. aastast on ajakiri indekseeritud rahvusvahelises andmebaasis Scopus.

Erinumbri ilmumist toetas Euroopa Liit Euroopa Regionaalarengu Fondi kaudu (Eesti-uuringute Tippkeskus TK 145), Eesti Teadusagentuuri uurimisprojektid PUT1218 ja  IUT 22-2.

Ajakirja Folklore nr 69 number on pühendatud vandenõuteooriatele ja kuulujuttudele


04.12.2017       Mari Sarv

Kirjutatud ja räägitud teksti mõjuvõim inimeste mõtlemise ja arvamuste üle on tänapäeva sotsiaalses ja poliitilises elus määravam kui interneti-eelsel ajastul. Sellepärast tähendab tänapäevane valeuudiste, kuulujuttude, linnamuistendite ja vandenõuteooriate, ja eelpoolnimetatute esitusega seotud huumori käsitlemine üha rohkem meedia uurimist selle originaalses toimimises. Temaatilise erinumbri kuus eesti, vene, valgevene, prantsuse ja slovaki teadlase uurimust on sellest tulenevalt nii või teisiti seotud ka ajakirjanduse ja sotsiaalmeedia uurimisega. Väljendades erinevaid poliitilisi ja kultuurilisi väärtusi, illusioone, eelarvamusi, hirme ja lootusi nii personaalsel kui kogukonna tasandil, võib kuulujuttudest, linnalegendidest ja vandenõuteooriatest saada poliitiline relv, mida poliitilised režiimid osavalt ära kasutavad. Amandine Regamey näitab seda analüüsides naissnaiperite legendi kasutamist Venemaaga seotud sõjalistes konfliktides. Anastasiya Astapova analüüsib Valgevene presidendivalimistega seotud kuuldusi ja nalju selles ühiskonnas valitsevate pingete võtmes. Liisi Laineste ja Eda Kalmre vaatlevad president Putini kultust ja tema väidetava kadumisega seotud sotsiaalmeedia kajastusi. Erinevaid konspiratsiooniteooriaid Slovakkias ja tänasel Venemaal käsitlevad Zuzana Panczova ja Alexander Panchenko. Eesti meedias Snowdeni skandaaliga seotud ohu ja hirmu konstrueerimisest kirjutab Mari-Liis Madisson. Erinumbri on külalistoimetajana koostanud Eda Kalmre, kelle sulest pärineb ka sissejuhatav artikkel.Number on lugejaile avatud veebilehel http://folklore.ee/folklore/vol69/.

Erinumbri ilmumist toetas Euroopa Liit Euroopa Regionaalarengu Fondi kaudu (Eesti-uuringute Tippkeskus TK 145), Eesti Teadusagentuuri uurimisprojekt IUT 22-5.

 

 

December 17, 2017 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Memo 5.XII 17

Memo rahvuspoliitika uurimuste kohta (visand 6.XII 17)

Kõigile kes on huvitatud sellest kuidas tsiviliseeritult/mittepopulistlikult koostada teaduspõhiselt usaldusväärseid rahvuspoliitilisi uuringuid: neid tuleb teha eeskätt rahvusvaheliselt teaduspõhiselt ning ajaliselt katkematult – aga mitte kitsalt kodukootult poliitkampade mahitamisel ning ilmselt barbaarsetel/korrumpeerunud kaalutlustel et nt imperatiivselt ilma teadusliku eeltsensuurita tekste rahvastele peale suruda – ilma rahvusvaheliste ning kodumaiste etniliste kiskjalike riskide muutumistega arvestamiseta.

Vt nt eeskujuks lõike ühest teaduspõhisest  lühiuurimusest väikese heterogeense rahvusriigi (transiidiriigi mis kiskjaliku minevikuga impeeriumi naaber) näitel (mis kõigetähtsam koos kohustuslike osundustega):

Kuhelj, Alenka (2011) „Rise of xenophobic nationalism in Europe: A case of Slovenia“ – Communist and Post-Communist Studies 44 (2011) 271–282

 

Keywords:

Minority rights

Nationalism

Post-communism

Citizenship policy

Erased

Slovenia

 

A b s t r a c t

The article focuses on rise of nationalism and xenophobia in Slovenia. It starts by

considering the issue of unrecognized minorities in Slovenia (former Yugoslavia nations)

that have no minority rights, despite being large groups, as many international organizations

for the protection of minorities have pointed out. A particular issue in this relation

for Slovenia is the ‘Erased’ – the individuals who did not acquire Slovenian citizenship

when Slovenia seceded from federal Yugoslavia – and despite the European Court of

Human Rights (ECHR) decision, the Slovenian state has still not recognized their rights,

which were violated in the post-independence period. The article also examines two other

minorities in Slovenia, the Jews and the Roma. The article finds Slovenia to be a closed,

non-globalised society which, in spite of its constitutional declaration to protect the rights

of minorities and other national communities, is seeking to retain a politically and

culturally homogeneous nation state.

©_ 2011 The Regents of the University of California. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

reserved.

::::::::::::

References

 

Amnesty International Report, 2010. Annual report, Slovenia. Available at: http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_AZ_EN.pdf#page¼236

(accessed 12.07.11.).

Berend, I., 2007. Save our Land and our Ancestral Race: From Xenophobia to Ethnic Cleansing in Central and Eastern Europe. (Unpublished manuscript).

Block, H., 2009. The restitution of holocaust-era Jewish communal property: an unfinished item on the Jewish diplomatic agenda. Israel Journal of Foreign

Affairs III (1) Available at: http://fodz.pl/download/issue7_block.pdf (accessed 23.10.11.).

Bugaric, B., 2008. Populism, liberal democracy, and the rule of law in central and Eastern Europe. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41, 191–203.

Bugaric, B., 2011. Trpka resnica o levici Mladina, [online] 22 April. Available at: http://www.mladina.si/tednik/201116/trpka_resnica_o_levici (accessed 23.10.11.).

Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin.

Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.

Council of Europe, 1995. Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (Strasbourg).

Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 2001. Statement of Good Intent Available at: http://www.slovenija2001.gov.si/10years/path/documents/goodintent

(accessed 12.07.11.).

Kern, S., 2011. Spain: the ‘Most Anti-Semitic Country in Europe’ Hudson New York, 7 April. Available at: http://www.hudson-ny.org/2020/spain-anti-semitic

(accessed 04.05.11.).

Kymlicka, W., 2002. Multiculturalism and minority rights: West and East. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 4, 16–21.

Klop_ci_c, V., Komac, M., Kr_zi_snik- Buki_c, V., 2003. Albanians, Bosniacs, Montenegrins, Croats, Macedonians and Serbs in the Republic of Slovenia. Institute for

Ethnic Studies. ECHR, Ljubljana. Kuric and Others v. Slovenia (2010), (Application no 26828/06).

Medved, F., 2007. From civic to ethnic community? The evolution of Slovenian citizenship. In: Bauböck, R., Perchinig, B., Sievers, W. (Eds.), Citizenship

Policies in the New Europe. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, pp. 216–217.

Müller, J.-W., 2011. The Hungarian Tragedy Dissent, Available at: http://www.princeton.edu/wjmueller/DISSENT-Hungary-JWMueller.pdf (accessed 12.07.11.).

Amending Act to the Law Regulating the Status of Citizens of Other Successor Countries to the Former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in

the Republic of Slovenia (ZUSDDD-B). OGRS 50/2010.

Aliens Act. OGRS 61/99, 30 July 1999a. Available at:http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b59c14.html (accessed 29.10.11.).

Law Regulating the Status of Citizens of Other Successor Countries to the Former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in the Republic of

Slovenia (ZUSDDD). OGRS 61/1999b.

Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia. OGRS 33/1991, 23 December 1991. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b59d0.html. (accessed

29.10.11.).

Citizenship Act of the Republic of Slovenia. OGRS 1/1991. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b59118.html. (accessed 29.10.11.).

STA, 2010. Pahor: Dol_zni smo ohraniti spomin na grozote holokavsta (Anon., 2010). 27 January. Available at: http://www.siol.net/Slovenija/Aktualno/2010/

01/Holokavst.aspx (accessed 05.05.11.).

Persin, S., 2011. The Virtual Jewish History Tour, Slovenia: These Sentiments and the Holocaust Both Contributed to the Tiny Jewish Population in Slovenia at

Present. Jewish Virtual Library [online]. Available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/slovenia.htm (accessed 11.07.11.).

Recommendation no 1201 (1993) of the Parliamentary Assembly of the council of Europe on an additional Protocol on the rights of minorities to the

European Convention on human rights.

Sarrazin, T., 2010. Der Bundesbanker schafft sich ab. FastBook Publishing. Religions, Jews Get Torah, First Rabbi and Synagogue (Anon., 2003). Slovenia

News, 27 February. Available at: http://slonews.sta.si/index.php?id¼672&s¼29 (accessed 05.05.11.).

Spritzer, D., 2009. Last Chance for Holocaust Restitution, 10 European Countries that Pose Obstacles for Restitution-Seekers. New Jersey Jewish Standard

[online] 3 July. Available at: http://www.jstandard.com/index.php/content/item/last_chance_for_holocaust_restitution3/ (accessed 12.07.11.).

Sylvetsky, R., Kempinsky, Y., 2011. Anti-Semitism, Circa 2010. IsraelNationalNews. 23 January. Available at: http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.

aspx/141896 (accessed 15.07.11.). References

Amnesty International Report, 2010. Annual report, Slovenia. Available at: http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_AZ_EN.pdf#page¼236

(accessed 12.07.11.).

Law Regulating the Status of Citizens of Other Successor Countries to the Former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in the Republic of

Slovenia (ZUSDDD). OGRS 61/1999b.

Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia. OGRS 33/1991, 23 December 1991. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b59d0.html. (accessed

29.10.11.).

Citizenship Act of the Republic of Slovenia. OGRS 1/1991. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b59118.html. (accessed 29.10.11.).

STA, 2010. Pahor: Dol_zni smo ohraniti spomin na grozote holokavsta (Anon., 2010). 27 January. Available at: http://www.siol.net/Slovenija/Aktualno/2010/

01/Holokavst.aspx (accessed 05.05.11.).

Persin, S., 2011. The Virtual Jewish History Tour, Slovenia: These Sentiments and the Holocaust Both Contributed to the Tiny Jewish Population in Slovenia at

Present. Jewish Virtual Library [online]. Available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/slovenia.htm (accessed 11.07.11.).

Recommendation no 1201 (1993) of the Parliamentary Assembly of the council of Europe on an additional Protocol on the rights of minorities to the

European Convention on human rights.

Sarrazin, T., 2010. Der Bundesbanker schafft sich ab. FastBook Publishing. Religions, Jews Get Torah, First Rabbi and Synagogue (Anon., 2003). Slovenia

News, 27 February. Available at: http://slonews.sta.si/index.php?id¼672&s¼29 (accessed 05.05.11.).

Spritzer, D., 2009. Last Chance for Holocaust Restitution, 10 European Countries that Pose Obstacles for Restitution-Seekers. New Jersey Jewish Standard

[online] 3 July. Available at: http://www.jstandard.com/index.php/content/item/last_chance_for_holocaust_restitution3/ (accessed 12.07.11.).

Sylvetsky, R., Kempinsky, Y., 2011. Anti-Semitism, Circa 2010. IsraelNationalNews. 23 January. Available at: http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.

aspx/141896 (accessed 15.07.11.).

 

 

December 5, 2017 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

NB: ZACK ‘9

Zack, Naomi (2009) Ethics for Disaster (Studies in Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy) Kindle:

Location 2036:

“On July 11, 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) received media attention for its monetary revaluation of an American human life. In May, the EPA had revised its figure from $7.8 to $6.9 million. This ‘value of statistical life” entails that the lifesaving results of some practices can be balanced against their costs.” –

NB need on Zack ‘9 järgi ameeriklaste keskmised statistilised hinnangud katastroofide tingimustes – seega ilmselt madalamad kui vastavad prognostilised informaalsed küberhinnad eliidi p.c kohta parajasti EL/28 puhul hübriidsõja tingimustes sanktsioonide sõja eesrindel.

Location 1138:

“Perhaps the real questions are these: How much protection from danger do we want for which we are willing to pay with the liberties we take for granted? What risks would or should we choose to take to safeguard our liberties?”

Location 1147:

“If prevention is confused with preparation and response, then the civilian rights and risks in those phases are easily overlooked. In this chapter, I develop an optimistic application of classic social contract theory to disaster preparation and response. I then consider a dismissal from postmodern pessimists and attempt to address that position with the help of Art Spiegelman. SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY For the United States, the idea of a
social contract at the foundation of civil society, or society under government, dates back to John Locke and Thomas Hobbes in the seventeenth century. Of course, theirs are not the only ideas as to how government originated and can be justified. This chapter began with reference to the tradition of naturalistic political theories, dating from Aristotle’s Politics, whereby government is understood to have developed from smaller forms of human organization.6 There are also supernatural political theories, whereby government is a creation of God (St. Augustine’), and grand historical political theories, whereby government is the expression of ohter principles guiding the natural, human, and social order (G. W. F Hegel and Karl Marx”). There are utopian, Manichean, and anarchistic theories of government, and so forth. Moreover, Hobbes and Locke are not the sole architects of social contract theory. Thomas Aquinas, despite his debt to Aristotle, mentions the obligations of rulers in an early social contract manner.9 JeanJacques Rousseau provided a variation on Locke’s ideas in the
eighteenth century, substituting the elusive notion of the general will for the will of the majority.10 John Rawls, during the second half of the twentieth century, extended social contract theory to more egalitarian ideals than envisioned by Hobbes or Locke with his conception of justice as fairness.”

 

November 30, 2017 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment